User Profile: Grazia Orizio

Grazia Orizio (
University of Brescia
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Accepted Abstracts

Medicine 2.0'09 (Toronto, Canada)

Persuasion Strategies of Online Pharmacies: How the Web Transforms Patients into Consumers
Grazia Orizio*, Sara Rubinelli, Peter Schulz, Serena Domenighini, Maura Bressanelli, Luigi Caimi, Umberto Gelatti*

Introduction: Online Pharmacies (OPs) are recognized as a threat to public health by FDA and WHO, as they pose a risk to consumers. Indeed, it is difficult to determine whether drugs purchased online might be counterfeit, unapproved or illegal. Moreover, OPs often provide drugs without a prescription. Despite the efforts by health authorities to regulate the selling of drugs over the internet, the global dimension of the web makes it difficult to control the phenomenon of drug selling. ...

What do Portals for Doctors Offer? A Qualitative Analysis of their Features for the Enrichment of Expert Knowledge
Umberto Gelatti*, Grazia Orizio*, Caterina Belotti, Sara Rubinelli, Loredana Covolo*, Luigi Caimi, Peter Schulz

Background: The internet has deeply changed the way people share information, as well as the modalities of health communication both among citizens and health professionals. Great concern has been expressed regarding the quality of health information on the web, whose trustworthiness remains one of the most worrying and complex issues. Nowadays the majority of doctors use the internet to access scientific advances, with unquestionable advantages but even some problems. Indeed, on one hand the...

Analysis of Websites Offering Direct-to-consumer Genetic Tests: the Possible Implications on Public Health
Loredana Covolo*, Georgia Martignone, Grazia Orizio*, Luigi Caimi, Peter Schulz, Umberto Gelatti*

Background. An increasing number of websites offers genetic testing directly to consumer (DTC). The limited evidence about the possible improvement of patient health by genetic test and the complexity of test result interpretation could lead to further workup that could increase the expenditure of health care resources. Performing these tests without proper counseling support, could alter perceptions of risk and health behavior, cause psychological morbidity and have a significant impact on ...

Medicine 2.0'11 (Stanford University, USA)

Health Information to Citizens: a Content Analysis of Italian Websites Dealing with the Theme of “Waste and Health”
Umberto Gelatti*, Monica Katia Locatelli, Luigi Caimi, Grazia Orizio

Background In the field of health communication a particularly critical issue is communication to the public of environmental risks, especially regarding topics for which it is difficult to obtain scientific evidence of risk estimates, and there is still a high degree of uncertainty. One of these topics is undoubtedly the impact of waste on people’s health, although little research has been conducted in this area. This theme is particular hot in Italy, where the global media have recently...

2010 Influenza and Vaccine Information Available on the Web
Anna Caruana*, Grazia Orizio, Loredana Covolo, Luigi Caimi, Umberto Gelatti*

Background In the field of public health, preventive measures need an effective communication strategy in order to be successful. During the 2010 influenza pandemic the public was bombarded with information on presumed risks associated with the flu vaccine, which created an atmosphere of suspicion (a “plot theory”) that made it very difficult to implement the vaccination campaign in some countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics and contents of websites prov...

Drug-selling Websites: a New Scenario in Public Health? A Systematic Review
Anna Merla*, Grazia Orizio, Peter J Schulz*, Umberto Gelatti*

Background Drug-Selling Websites (DSWs) are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet. Very little is still known about this phenomenon, due to its hidden nature when occurring outside national legislation. The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and comprehensive review of scientific literature focusing on the broader picture of DSWs by scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limit...

Full Paper Publications

Journal of Medical Internet Research

Quality of Online Pharmacies and Websites Selling Prescription Drugs: A Systematic Review
Grazia Orizio, Anna Merla, Peter J Schulz, Umberto Gelatti
J Med Internet Res 2011;13(3):e74

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